Odisha

From information database, the free resource
Jump to navigation Jump to search
State in Eastern India

State in India
Odisha

Kalinga, Utkal
State
Odisha
Clockwise from top: Udayagiri and Khandagiri Jain Caves; Mahanadi river; Chilka Lake; Carvings at Sun Temple of Konarka.

Emblem
Coordinates (Bhubaneswar): 20°16′N 85°49′E / 20.27°N 85.82°E / 20.27; 85.82Coordinates: 20°16′N 85°49′E / 20.27°N 85.82°E / 20.27; 85.82
Country India
Statehood1 April 1936
(Utkala Dibasa)
CapitalBhubaneswar
Largest cityBhubaneswar[1]
Districts30
Government
 • BodyGovernment of Odisha
 • GovernorGaneshi Lal[2]
 • Chief MinisterNaveen Patnaik (BJD)
 • LegislatureUnicameral (147 seats)
 • Parliamentary constituency21 Lok Sabha;
10 Rajya Sabha[3]
 • High CourtOrissa High Court, Cuttack, Odisha
Area
 • Total155,707 km2 (60,119 sq mi)
Area rank8th
Population
 (2018)
 • Total45,989,232
 • Rank11th
 • Density300/km2 (760/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Odia
GDP (2017–18)
[4]
 • Total4.16 lakh crore (US$60 billion)
 • Per capita80,991 (US$1,200)
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
ISO 3166 codeIN-OR
HDI 0.580[5] (medium)
HDI rank25th (2015)
Literacy73.45%[6]
Official languageOdia[7]
Websitewww.odisha.gov.in
Symbols of Odisha
Emblem
Konark Horse
Language
Odia
SongBande Utkala Janani
Dance
Odissi
Animal
Sambar
Bird
Indian roller
Flower
Ashoka
Tree
Indian Fig tree
Sweet
Rasagola

Odisha (/əˈdɪsə/,[8] /ɒˈrɪsə, ɔː-, -/;[9], pronounced [oɽɪˈsaː] (listen); formerly known as Orissa) is one of the 28 states of India. Located in eastern India, it is surrounded by the states of West Bengal to the northeast, Jharkhand to the north, Chhattisgarh to the west and northwest, and Andhra Pradesh to the south. Odisha has 485 kilometres (301 mi) of coastline along the Bay of Bengal on its east, from Balasore to Ganjam.[10] It is the 9th largest state by area, and the 11th largest by population. The state also has the third largest population of Scheduled Tribes in India.[11] Odia[12] is the official and most widely spoken language, spoken by 36.6 million according to the 2016 Census.[13]

The ancient kingdom of Kalinga, which was invaded by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka in 261 BCE resulting in the Kalinga War, coincides with the borders of modern-day Odisha.[14] The modern state of Odisha was established on 1 April 1936, as a province in British India, and consisted predominantly of Odia-speaking regions.[14] 1 April is celebrated as Utkala Dibasa.[15] The region is also known as Utkala and is mentioned in India's national anthem, "Jana Gana Mana".[16] Cuttack was made the capital of the region by Anantavarman Chodaganga in c. 1135,[17] after which the city was used as the capital by many rulers, through the British era until 1948. Thereafter, Bhubaneswar became the capital of Odisha.[18]

The economy of Odisha is the 16th-largest state economy in India with 4.16 lakh crore (US$60 billion) in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of 81,000 (US$1,200).[4] Odisha ranks 25th among Indian states in human development index.[5]