Odisha

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State in eastern India

State in India
Odisha
State
Clockwise from top: Habalikhati Beach, Mukteshvara Temple, Bhitarkanika National Park, Dhauli, Chilika Lake, Rajarani Temple, Mahanadi, Jagannath Temple, Gundichaghagi Waterfall, Konark Temple
Emblem
Anthem: Bande Utkala Janani
(I Adore Thee, O Mother Utkala!)
Coordinates (Bhubaneswar): 20°16′N 85°49′E / 20.27°N 85.82°E / 20.27; 85.82Coordinates: 20°16′N 85°49′E / 20.27°N 85.82°E / 20.27; 85.82
Country India
Statehood1 April 1936
(Utkala Dibasa)
Capital and
Largest city
Bhubaneswar[2]
Districts30
Government
 • BodyGovernment of Odisha
 • GovernorGaneshi Lal
 • Chief MinisterNaveen Patnaik
 • LegislatureUnicameral (147 seats)
 • Parliamentary constituencyLok Sabha (21 seats)
Rajya Sabha (10 seats)
 • High CourtOrissa High Court
Area
 • Total155,707 km2 (60,119 sq mi)
Area rank8th
Population
 (2011)
 • Total41,974,218[1]
 • Rank11th
Demonym(s)Odia
GDP (2019–20)
[3]
 • Total533,822 crore (US$75 billion)
 • Per capita116,614 (US$1,600)
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
ISO 3166 codeIN-OR
HDI (2018) 0.606[4]
medium · 32nd
Literacy73.45%[5]
Official languageOdia[6]
Websitewww.odisha.gov.in
Symbols of Odisha
EmblemEmblem of Odisha
SongBande Utkala Janani
Dance
Odissi
Mammal
Sambar[7]
Bird
Indian Roller[8][9]
Fish
Mahanadi mahseer[10]
Flower
Ashoka[7]
Tree
Sacred Fig[7][11]
Food
Pakhala
Sweet
Rasagola

Odisha (English: /əˈdɪsə/ [sic],[12] Odia: [oɽiˈsa] (listen)), formerly Orissa (/ɒˈrɪsə, ɔː-, -/[13]), is an Indian state located in Eastern India. It is the 8th largest state by area, and the 11th largest by population. The state has the third largest population of Scheduled Tribes in India.[14] It neighbours the states of West Bengal and Jharkhand to the north, Chhattisgarh to the west, Andhra Pradesh to the south, and a very negligible border with Telangana to the southwest. Odisha has a coastline of 485 kilometres (301 mi) along the Bay of Bengal.[15] The region is also known as Utkala and is mentioned in India's national anthem, "Jana Gana Mana".[16] The language of Odisha is Odia, which is one of the Classical Languages of India.[17]

The ancient kingdom of Kalinga, which was invaded by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka (which was again won back from them by king Kharavela) in 261 BCE resulting in the Kalinga War (The lethal war with Kalinga transformed the vengeful Emperor Ashoka into a stable and peaceful emperor, and he became a patron of Buddhism), coincides with the borders of modern-day Odisha.[18] The modern boundaries of Odisha were demarcated by the British Indian government when Orissa Province was established on 1 April 1936, consisting of the Odia-speaking districts of Bihar and Orissa Province.[18] The first of April is celebrated as Utkala Dibasa.[19] Cuttack was made the capital of the region by Anantavarman Chodaganga in c. 1135,[20] after which the city was used as the capital by many rulers, through the British era until 1948. Thereafter, Bhubaneswar became the capital of Odisha.[21]

The economy of Odisha is the 16th-largest state economy in India with 5.33 lakh crore (US$75 billion) in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of 116,614 (US$1,600).[3] Odisha ranks 32nd among Indian states in human development index.[22]