Odisha

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State in eastern India

State in India
Odisha

ଓଡ଼ିଶା
State
Clockwise from top: Jagannath Temple, Puri, Chilka Lake, Mahanadi river, Sun Temple of Konark, Udayagiri and Khandagiri Jain Caves
Emblem
Anthem: Bande Utkala Janani
(I Adore Thee, O Mother Utkala!)
Coordinates (Bhubaneswar): 20°16′N 85°49′E / 20.27°N 85.82°E / 20.27; 85.82Coordinates: 20°16′N 85°49′E / 20.27°N 85.82°E / 20.27; 85.82
Country India
Statehood1 April 1936
(Utkala Divasa)
CapitalBhubaneswar
Largest cityBhubaneswar[2]
Districts30
Government
 • BodyGovernment of Odisha
 • GovernorGaneshi Lal
 • Chief MinisterNaveen Patnaik (BJD)
 • LegislatureUnicameral (147 seats)
 • Parliamentary constituency21 Lok Sabha;
10 Rajya Sabha[3]
 • High CourtOrissa High Court, Cuttack
Area
 • Total155,707 km2 (60,119 sq mi)
Area rank8th
Population
 (2011)
 • Total41,974,218[1]
 • Rank11th
Demonym(s)Odia
GDP (2017–18)
[4]
 • Total4.16 lakh crore (US$58 billion)
 • Per capita80,991 (US$1,100)
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
ISO 3166 codeIN-OR
HDI (2018) 0.606[5]
medium · 32nd
Literacy73.45%[6]
Official languageOdia[7]
Websitewww.odisha.gov.in
Symbols of Odisha
Emblem
Konark Horse
Language
Odia
SongBande Utkala Janani
Dance
Odissi
Mammal
Sambar
Bird
Indian Roller[8][9]
Flower
Ashoka
Tree
Indian Fig tree
Sweet
Rasagola

Odisha (English: /əˈdɪsə/,[10] /ɒˈrɪsə, ɔː-, -/;[11] Odia: [oɽiˈsaː] (listen)), also formerly Orissa, is an Indian state located on the Eastern India. It neighbors the states of West Bengal and Jharkhand to the north, Chhattisgarh to the west and Andhra Pradesh to the south. Odisha has a coastline of 485 kilometres (301 mi) along the Bay of Bengal.[12] It is the 8th largest state by area, and the 11th largest by population. The state has the third largest population of Scheduled Tribes in India.[13]

The ancient kingdom of Kalinga, which was invaded by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka (which was again won back from them by king Kharavela) in 261 BCE resulting in the Kalinga War, coincides with the borders of modern-day Odisha.[14] The modern boundaries of Odisha were demarcated by the British Indian government and the "Province of Orissa" was established on 1 April 1936, it consisted of Odia (Oriya) speaking districts.[14] 1 April is celebrated as Utkala Dibasa.[15] The region is also known as Utkala and is mentioned in India's national anthem, "Jana Gana Mana".[16] Cuttack was made the capital of the region by Anantavarman Chodaganga in c. 1135,[17] after which the city was used as the capital by many rulers, through the British era until 1948. Thereafter, Bhubaneswar became the capital of Odisha.[18]

The economy of Odisha is the 16th-largest state economy in India with 4.16 lakh crore (US$58 billion) in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of 93,000 (US$1,300).[4] Odisha ranks 23rd among Indian states in human development index.[19]